The holy trinity

Usually physics does not answer to the fundamental question: “Why?” This discipline organizes its activity on a cyclic procedure starting with observations and/or experiments, measurements, analysis including comparisons with similar existing situations, guessing the underlying mathematical law describing at best the measurements, testing the accuracy of the guess (interval of confidence), sometimes suggesting an ontological explanation but, merely, new experiments or/and observations the purpose of which being the optimizing of the proposed law or/and the incorporation of more observations into a unique corpus. So, physics does answer the question: “How does it work?”

This way of doing is a well-recognized protocol to stop endless metaphysical or esoteric discussions. A now classical illustration of that affirmation is the polemic debate on the existence of a luminiferous aether to which Morley’s and Michelson’s experiment [01, 1887] opposed its concrete “do not discuss further” stop. As it is known, the Lorentz transformations are the underlying mathematical law describing at best this experimental evidence. They have been integrated into A. Einstein’s theory of special relativity. They explain the complementarity between electricity and magnetism.

Unifying physics

The unification of physical interactions did not stop with Einstein’s first successful theory. The theory of electro-weak interactions and the quantum chromodynamics (alias QCD; concerning strong interactions) with its asymptotic freedom procedure explaining the confinement of quarks [03; D. Gross, Nobel prize 2004] continue this fascinating story. The analogy with the behaviour of elastic strings underlying the mechanism explaining the asymptotic freedom justifies the search for mathematical bridges between the QCD and the diverse strings theories.

The theory studying deformed tensor products and their natural decompositions (labelled “The theory of the (E) question – alias (TEQ)”) proposes a mathematical procedure describing in a rationalistic manner the behaviour of three quarks inside nucleons as an inseparable entity (hence the provocative title of this introductory article: the holy trinity).

The QCD is the official guess resulting from numerous observations in particle physics. The proposition of the TEQ is increasing the credibility of that guess in suggesting another explanation for the observed confinement. This is an ontological explanation for the sub-nuclear particles. They should essentially be thought as moving interconnected energetic surfaces. 

© Thierry PERIAT, 19 November 2020.


[01] A. Michelson and E. Morley: ‘On the Relative Motion of the Earth and the Luminiferous Ether. Originally published in “The American Journal of Science”, N° 203-November, 1887 (Editors James D. and Edward S. Dana; associated editors: Prof. A. Gray, J. P. Cooke and J. Trowbridge, of Cambridge, Prof. H.A. Newton and A. E. Verrill of New Haven; Prof. G. F. Barker of Philadelphia. Third series, Vol. XXXIV.- (Whole number, CXXXIV.)

[02] D. Freeman: Quantenfeld-theorie (Die Weltbekannte Einführung von einem der Väter der QED); Springer Spektrum, ISBN 978-3-642-37677-1, © Springer Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2014.

[03] D. Gross: Pourquoi les quarks restent invisibles ; La Recherche, Entretiens, physique, avril 2005, n°385.

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Variations and metrics

“How can we, how must we calculate the variations of given quantities?” The task is not so easy as it seems to be at a first glance. Celebrated mathematicians as Descartes in France and as Leibniz in another part of Europa have spent a part of their life in exploring this topic.


The GTR2-GB reconsiders the basic stones with which the theory of relativity has been built. Three fundamental hypotheses are characterizing the GTR-p theory: 1) The discussion is developed in a four-dimensional real vector space E(4, R) referred to a canonical basis. 2) The time is a vector (the arrow of time).

Vacuum and strings

Astronomical measurements try to determinate the nature and the curvature of our observable universe. As a matter of evidence, empty volumes are quite more frequent than non-empty ones. This is true at any scale: either inside atoms or for galaxies.

Last edited: 01/12/2020