Vacuum and strings
The document: Vasv4 (559.99 Ko) - This is the most recent version introducing the concepts and the main ideas.
Astronomical measurements try to determinate the nature and the curvature of our observable universe. As a matter of evidence, empty volumes are quite more frequent than non-empty ones. This is true at any scale: either inside atoms or for galaxies.
This fact may induce the unconventional hypothesis that particles are just the foam of energetical fluctuations occurring in the empty regions of the universe. With different words, they are a little bit like the tops of icebergs.
But a better description is perhaps to imagine the particles as the result of some change in the usual state of what we generically label as the “vacuum” (a little bit like the water can be either solid, liquid or a gas). This thesis defends the idea that these empty regions behave like a perfect fluid in a quasi-stable equilibrium accepting small deformations.
With that approximative and provisory hypothesis, I suppose that the expansion is equivalent to a force acting on any small and tubular piece of that electromagnetic fluid for which Maxwell’s laws for electromagnetism hold true. The basic ideas concerning the cross products within the theory of the (E) question are then enough to easily recover the equation of state for a perfect fluid. The generalization of these ideas (i.e.: the deformations of the cross products) are also enough to envisage a whole set of equations of the state centered on the one of a perfect fluid.
This lucky coincidence and its generalizations will certainly be hardly criticized by the scientific communities because the hypothesis allowing to reach these results is indirectly saying that the empty regions can be identified with a kind of ether; namely: that perfect electromagnetic fluid itself. And this name may be interpreted as another one for the Maxwell’s luminiferous aether which has been discarded by the Morley and Michelson experiments in 1887. Hence, this approach may be in a frontal conflict with the actual paradigm.
Despite of this argument, the quintessence (the fifth force or the fiith element) remains an actual topic . Its story is an old one and the articles ,  exhibit a clear link with the preoccupations exposed in my document (see above).
© Thierry PERIAT
 Hints of twisted light offer clues to dark energy's nature; Nature, News, 24 November, doi: https://doi.org/10.1038/d41586-020-03201-8.
 Cosmology with x-matter; Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 289, LS-L9 (1997).
 Quintessence and the rest of the world; arXiv:astro-phy/9806099v2 31 August 1998.
Nevertheless, you may also enjoy the visit of the following extern pages and understand why strings have been the inspiration for my theoretical work, a long time ago, long before we had computers to do the N-body simulations:
- The Millennium simulation on Wiki-GB
- The Max-Planck-Institute für Astrophysik.
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Last edited: 30/11/2020