Representing particles with 4 x 4 matrices.


Vers la  version francaise.

Author: Thierry PERIAT.

Matriculation: ISBN 978-2-36923-161-5, EAN 9782369231615.

Language: GB/USA.

Number of pages: 12 + 10 + 14.


Part 01: Classification Em duality part 01Em duality part 01 (383.43 Ko); 23 February 2022.

Part 02: Link with the Lorentzian metrics Em duality part 02Em duality part 02 (324.55 Ko); 23 February 2022.

Part 03: The third criterion and the Klein-Gordon equation: Part 03 em dualityPart 03 em duality (288.65 Ko), 17 March 2022.

Full text: Hso and particlesHso and particles (550.95 Ko), 24 March 2022, 47 pages.


Electromagnetic duality has attracted much attention in mathematical physics and is often considered as the simplest example of a deeper symmetry dispatched in many other domains. This document is not an overview on the topic and readers wanting to study its history or the very sophisticated theoretical developments that have been performed in starting from the basic example of electromagnetism may find enough information in the literature. I had only the quite more modest goal to find representations in M(4, C) for the Hodge operator acting on 2-forms; this document exposes the main results. A junction with the dispersion relation can now be envisaged.

Go to the page: The Klein-Gordon equation.

Date de dernière mise à jour : 26/04/2022

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